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Innovative solutions are becoming increasingly available to make electric mobility mass-market-capable. An important part of this is the charging technology. In this context, the term smart charging is used for charging systems of electric or hybrid vehicles according to standards like ISO 15118 and DIN SPEC 70121.
In this know-how section essential knowledge about charging standards is presented. Use one of the direct links to jump to the desired standard:
|International Standards||National Standards||Protocols|
|Connectors, Inlets, Plugs|
|Onboard Charger, EVSE|
|Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) Systems|
|IEC 61980||SAE J2954|
|Communication EV To EVSE|
|Communication EVSE To CSMS|
Vector Solutions for Smart Charging
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Plugs, Socket Outlets, Vehicle Connectors and Vehicle Inlets – Conductive Charging of EVs
The IEC 62196 charging standard defines different modes of conductive charging depending on how the power is transferred to the vehicle and the required protection and communication protocol that can be used.
> AC charging, low current (e.g. mopeds), no communication
> AC charging, for temporary solutions, using in cable control box (ICCB) on a standard household socket; communication by using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
> AC charging with up to 63 A with additional features
> Charging power can be controlled over high-level communication
> DC and AC charging with high-level communication
> Off-board charger enables very fast charging speeds for DC charging
Electric Vehicle Conductive Charging System
IEC 61851 is a standard for electric vehicle conductive charging systems, covering the characteristics and operating conditions of the EV supply equipment, the specification of the connection between the EV supply equipment and the requirements for electrical safety for the EV supply equipment.
|IEC 61851-1||General requirements|
|IEC 61851-23||DC electric vehicle charging station|
|IEC 61851-24||Digital communication between a DC EV charging station and an electric vehicle for control of DC charging|
Electric Vehicle Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) Systems
The standard is relevant for the specification of the equipment for the wireless transfer of electric power from the supply network to EVs. This includes purposes of supplying electric energy to the rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and/or other on-board electrical systems in an operational state when connected to the supply network.
Road Vehicles - Vehicle To Grid Communication Interface
The standard defines a high-level communication protocol for EVs and charging stations to charge/discharge the EV’s high-voltage battery. It covers processes like AC and DC charging, charging with pantographs and wireless charging. Vehicle-to-grid communication enables grid stabilization.
|ISO 15118-1||General information and use case definition|
|ISO 15118-2||Network and application protocol requirements|
|ISO 15118-3||Physical and data link layer|
|ISO 15118-4||Network and application protocol conformance tests|
|ISO 15118-5||Physical and data link layer conformance tests|
|ISO 15118-8||Physical and data link layer requirements for wireless communication|
|ISO 15118-9||Physical and data link layer conformance tests for wireless communication|
|ISO 15118-20||2nd generation network and application protocol requirements (DIS published 2019; final release expected beginning 2022)|
Protocol for Management of EVs Charging and Discharging Infrastructures
The standard covers the communication protocol for the message exchange between the charging station and the backend interface. This involves the general requirements for the development of an e-mobility ecosystem and the communication processes between the various e-mobility actors, for example also the exchange of data with the energy supply system.
Electric Vehicle and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Conductive Charge Coupler
This surface vehicle practice recommendation covers the general physical, electrical, functional and performance requirements of conductive charging. The standard includes operational and functional requirements for the vehicle inlet and mating connector. It’s a predecessor of ISO 15118. There are three charging levels defined.
|Level 1||AC energy from the most common U.S. grounded household receptacle (120 V outlet)|
|Level 2||AC energy, 208-240 V, single phase|
|Level 3||DC energy < 400 A and 240 kW|
Wireless Power Transfer for Light-Duty Plug-In/Electric Vehicles and Alignment Methodology
SAE J2954 specifies criteria for home (private) charging and public wireless power transfer (WPT) of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles and requirements for safety, performance, and interoperability. Currently the document provides guidelines for unidirectional charging, stationary applications (charging while vehicle is not in motion), above-ground (surface mounted) installations and recommended methods for evaluating electromagnetic emissions. Dynamic or bidirectional applications and flush mounted installations may be considered in the future.
DIN SPEC 70121
Digital Communication Between a DC EVSE and an EV for Control of DC Charging in the CCS
This standard defines the communication between a DC charging station and the electric vehicle. It is a German predecessor of ISO 15118-2. This standard specifies the requirements for the communication protocol for DC charging and communication with the supply system.
DIN SPEC 70122
Conformance Tests for Digital Communication Between a DC EV Charging Station and an EV for Control
The standard specifies conformity tests for communication between the charging station and the electric vehicle with regard to DC charging, based on DIN SPEC 70121.
Electric Vehicle Conductive Charging System
Guobiao standards (GB) are the Chinese national standards published by the Standardization Administration of China (SAC). GB/T 18487.1 contains requirements for e.g. safety issues like electric shock, overload and short circuit protection or emergency stops, but also communication and connection issues between EV and EVSE. Additionally, there are specifications about the EV coupler and EVSE structure and performance requirements.
Connection Set for Conductive Charging of Electric Vehicles
With the GB/T 20234.2 standard they specify AC Type-2-like male connectors with a different control signaling. The GB/T 20234.3 DC standard supports charging capacities with up to 250 kW.
Communication Protocols Between Off-Board Conductive Charger and Battery Management System
The Chinese standard GB/T 27930 is intended for a control area network (CAN) based communication between EVSEs and onboard battery management systems (BMS) in EV in charging processes. It specifies the physical layer, data link and application layer of the communication.
DC Charging Protocol
Protocol for DC charging communication between the EV and the charger over CAN, with up to 400 kW, which makes it possible to charge large commercial vehicles like trucks and buses. The protocol can also be used for high-voltage charging up to 1 kV using liquid-cooled cable assemblies. The protocol includes a compatibility with the Plug and Charge functionality.
In the video below Dominik Hussfeldt Vazquez presents an overview about the Japanese charging standard and how to test it:
- The communication is kept simple in comparison to CCS, whereby the exchange of battery parameters and fast charging are in the foreground and less the comfort of the end user.
The short test specification for charging stations according to the CHAdeMO standard can be applied to different communication points.
CHAdeMO 3.0 / ChaoJi-2 is downward compatible to the CHAdeMO 2.x standards via an inlet adapter and extends them with additional CAN signals.
Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP)
Since the Open Charge Alliance (OCA) has defined OCPP in order to make EV networks open and accessible, OCPP has become a standard protocol. The protocol allows the communication between EV charging stations and charging management systems. It is used by the most suppliers of EVSEs and charging management systems. Currently, OCPP 1.6J is the most used version. OCPP 2.0.1 is the newest version and comprises additional features, like improved security and configurability. Unfortunately, the versions are not compatible. In the future, the IEC 63110 might replace OCPP.
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Order the Vector Electric Vehicle Chart. The clearly structured Poster in DIN A1 format gives you important technical details on Charging Communication. Among other things, the unique poster illustrates the following topics:
- Electric Charging Use Cases
- Charging Methods
- Charging Interfaces
- Standards and Protocols