Central servers or integration nodes are complex ECUs. They usually consist of several microcontrollers and microprocessors.
The next development step of a domain controller approach is the central server architecture. The domains are combined in a large high-performance computer or computer cluster. However, there are more differences to the domain architecture than this. It is, for example, no longer possible to connect the sensors/actuators directly to the central control unit, since so many I/O peripherals cannot be connected to processors available today. Sensors/actuators are now connected directly to the network as so-called "Smart Sensors" and "Smart Actuators" and perform mechatronic tasks. Hence, they become ECU and vehicle independent, enabling a modular system design with a high reuse potential.